Laptop Battery Life

How Long Does Laptop Battery Life

As we know that laptop, notebook, and netbook has installed a battery as a DC voltage source in order to operate without main source voltage. That is why in these devices do not require an additional UPS. Battery which has been installed on a laptop generally in accordance with laptop brands such ASUS, HP, Toshiba and Compaq. Laptop battery life can be different for each brand because they have advantages and disadvantages.

There are several brands of laptops that has a battery that can work within 5 to 8 hours some others can last 3-5 hours, even some that only lasted less than one hour even though the laptop specs (processor, ram, vga) equal and software which has been installed as well. It can be an indicator of the quality of laptop battery.

Although the same brand of laptop and battery, but the laptop battery life can be different.  They could be quickly depleted and may take longer. It is certainly influenced by the use of laptop users such as length of use of laptop without connecting the main power source, or use heavy programs (software) such as games and videos. Human error can also affect the age of the battery for example the users use a laptop until the battery runs out or forget to recharge.

How to Extend The Laptop Battery Life

Below are some tips that you can do to extend laptop battery life:

  1. Do not do recharge if the battery voltage is still enough (still enough to be used). Too often recharge the battery may reduce battery life
  2. Unplug adaptor (DC Power Supply) when not being used to recharge or recharge process interrupted because the main power off
  3. If the laptop is not being used for a long time, preferably off the battery and store it in a safe place at a suitable temperature. Make sure the battery is charged at least 40%
  4. If the temperature of laptop is getting hot, you should use a laptop cooling fan
  5. We recommend that you turn off the laptop while recharging process
  6. Close programs that are not used should not be left idle
  7. Reduce the brightness of the laptop monitor to save battery

The above tips are not absolute, and only a few opinions as most are disagreements. We advise you to seek information from other places as a reference.

Battery Life

What is Battery Life

Battery life is the normal time of battery operation which can be used as a DC voltage source normaly in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications. For example a batttery 12 volts when measured with a Volt Meter after recharging process is 6 Volt, of course, the battery has been damaged or out of it’s life although it can still be used as a voltage source for electronic equipment 6 Volts DC. This condition applies to the liquid battery and dry battery including a car battery, remote battery, or laptop battery.

No matter how good the quality of a battery, whatever expensive of battery price, it was definitely some day will be damaged or the lifetime of the battery will be exhausted.

Based on scientific research each battery manufacturers can estimate the age of the battery life. However, the battery life can be reduced or increased from time factory default depends on the use of the users. Incorrect usage can shorten battery life, normal usage can be in accordance with the life time of battery factory, and special use may prolong battery life.

How Long The Life Time

Expensive batteries are generally warranted longer than low cost battery. This warranty time can be an indicator of the battery life can be guaranteed by the manufacturer of battery even though it is not absolute. Some producers give guarantees 12 months, there are also 18 months warranty, even for a car battery they dare to guarantee based on the distance traveled in Kilometers. They must already take into account the quality of their batteries.

Improper use of such a battery is used for equipment that requires a larger capacity than the ability of the battery, it can shorten the life of battery. While careful and proper use can extend the life of battery for example battery is used in equipment according to the ability of the battery or on the lower power devices.

Errors in the process of charging  battery or not in accordance with the procedure can also damage or shorten the life of the battery. For example, fast charging (boost mode) with high DC voltage for long periods without regard to battery specifications.

How to Extend Battery Age

Below is be some tips to prolong the battery life that you can do for your battery.

  1. Make it a habit to read the battery specifications listed on the label or in the guide book in accordance with the brand.
  2. Use the battery according to the device needs. Do not let the battery capacity is lower than that supplied devices.
  3. If using liquid battery, periodically check the volume of liquid inside the battery, not to be less than the lower level.
  4. Charge the battery in the right way in accordance with procedures and in accordance with the specifications of the battery.
  5. If you are not a specialist battery, you should not use the boost method (using high DC voltage) for a liquid battery especially in a long time because the battery could overheat and explode.

Battery University

What is Battery University

Benefits of the battery as a DC voltage source is very broad and we can feel every day in many electronic devices. The users of electronic equipment that uses the battery mostly only know how to charge and recharge, they do not know how to maintain it.

We can watch a lot of equipment that uses the battery for example mobile phone, remote control, vehicle, and other devices. Battery is used because it is more flexible and portable. A device can work without the need to connect directly to the main power source. In addition, the battery can be used as a backup power source when the main power source is not working. Through the process of a power inverter system, the battery can be an AC power source .

For an engineer or a technician who has always worked in the field of electricity and electronics would have to really know the details of the construction of the battery, the material of manufacture, characteristics, and how to maintain. This is in addition to preventing damage to electronic equipment and can also extend the life of the battery.

To be able to master and understand matters relating to the battery of course we have to learn through school-specific or to expert professional battery with practice immediately. It is certainly costly but Battery University may be the solution.

Battery University™ is a free educational website that offers hands-on battery information to engineers, educators, media, students and battery users alike. There we can find out the advantages and disadvantages of battery chemistries as well as the steps necessary to extend the life of the battery including car battery.

Isidor Buchmann has developed such materials in A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers “(3rd edition). The 328-page book is available to purchase on-line. Battery University™ is sponsored by Cadex Electronics Inc., a manufacturer of advanced battery chargers and test devices. For those of you who are interested to buy the guide book can view the list of contents below.

Table of Content

Basics You Should Know

Introduction
Crash Course on Batteries
Battery Types
Packaging and Safety
Charge Methods
Discharge Methods
“Smart” Battery

The Battery and You

From Birth to Retirement
How to Prolong Battery Life
Battery Testing and Monitoring

Batteries as Power Source

Amazing Value of a Battery
What is the Cost of Battery Power?
Electric Powertrain
Afterword
Information
Learning Tools
Battery Pool
Archive

For more information about Battery University you can visit batteryuniversity.com.
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Car Battery Replacement

There are still a lot of car owners who assume that the car battery replacement is easy and trivial thing. Process of replacing the car battery must be done properly to maintain the stability of the car and prevent damage due to improper procedures. The process is fairly easy, but there are some things that need to be taken seriously for example, the capacity of the battery, cables wiring, and tighten the bolts and nuts is connected to the car battery.

If the procedure of car battery replacement is not considered properly, it can cause a disruption in the system of the car, especially on electronic equipment that uses a DC voltage source. Mild disorders such as interference on the digital clock, audio features power windows, radio and memory that needs to be readjusted. More severe disorders such loss program at ECU (for modern vehicles) so that the machine can not work even though some modern vehicles have a backup battery so that the program can be kept within a certain time. If you are in doubt when doing car battery replacement you should contact your favorite repair shop or call a special car battery to prevent further damage to your vehicle.

To minimize disruption to your car electronics systems, below are some of the procedures that need to be considered when replacing the car battery:

  1. Prepare a new battery in accordance with the specifications and requirements of your vehicle
  2. Prepare DC Power Supply (battery charger) to maintain electrical interference that may affect the ECU.
  3. Turn on your car and make sure the engine is working.
  4. Connect the cables from the battery charger to the battery poles will be replaced and be sure not reversed.
  5. Connect the cable from the battery charger to each end of the cable that is connected to the poles of the battery to be replaced and be sure not reversed. It is useful to keep the electricity still flowing.
  6. Make sure the power supply (battery charger) is on, then loosen the bolts / nuts on old battery to be replaced. then disconnect the battery and replace it with a new one that has been prepared. At this time, for a while the car system is supplied by a battery charger so that the system still works.
  7. Put a new car battery in place and make sure all the cables are not reversed. Tighten the nuts / bolts. After all sure, remove the battery charger. Replacement process was completed.

Once the car battery replacement process is complete, check all car systems and make sure that no system is disturbed.

Charging A Car Battery

The capacity of the car battery that we use constantly for the rest of the vehicle or in accordance with the duration of use will continue to decrease. Reduced capacity of the battery will be seen from the liquid H2SO4 acid in the battery (if using liquid battery) that is on the wane, even less than the lower limit (lower level). Physical sediment in the battery will be more and more due to chemical reaction during use and this is a normal condition occurs in any liquid batttery. This is the time of charging a car battery if the battery is not the time to be replaced with new ones.

Battery which has long been used in a car, acidity will decrease and sediment will be more and more. Charging a car battery is a way to release deposits in the cells of the battery so it can dissolve back into the battery fluid and will increase the acidity. For some types of battery fluid replenishment is not recommended because it can cause damage.The disposable battery only during a certain time, after which the battery must be replaced with new ones.

When the battery is mounted on a car, it actually indirectly always charged when the car engine works. However, we can recharge the battery manually by releasing it from the vehicle and then charge it with a special tool charging such as using DC power supply. The output voltage of the DC Power Supply needed for charging a car battery 12 volt is about 14.4 volts, but there are several types of liquid battery that can be charged for using a DC voltage up to 15 volts without damaging the battery itself.

Once the car battery is removed from the car, connect the positive pole of the battery to the positive output terminal of the power supply and the negative pole of the battery is connected to the negative output terminal of power supply. Charging process takes time according to the battery capacity. That must be considered is the current capacity of power supply must be able to handle the battery is being charged. The process of charging a car battery can produce gas, water vapor, and heat, so we have to really pay attention to this condition so that the battery will not be damaged.

Before this process should we clean the outside of the physical battery, especially the top of the battery so that dirt does not get into the battery. When charging, the gas-dryier should be removed so that the gas and water vapor easy exit so that the battery is not too hot although it has ventilation holes. Add pure water or distilled water if the liquid in the battery is less than the minimum level (lower level).

To extend the life of the battery, we should process of charging a car battery every 1-2 months or when the battery voltage is less than 12.6 volts. Actually, this process can be done without removing the battery from the car but the wiring of the vehicle that is connected to the battery must be removed all. It can help us when reassembling. However, we need a longer cable from the DC power supply to the battery. That must be considered is the size of the wires (cables) that must conform to the current flowing into the battery when the charging process.

Below are a few things we need to consider when charging a car battery to the safety and the convenience of work.

  1. Use the fuse according to the voltage and current capacity of the power supply to prevent damage to the power supply when charging. The fuse must be installed at the output of one power supply terminal, for example on the positive terminal.
  2. Check all cable connections and make sure the terminals posisitf power supply connected to the positive pole of the battery, while the negative terminal of the power supply is connected to the negative pole of the battery. If the cable is reversed and a safety fuse is not installed, then it is likely to damage the power supply (burning) or the battery will explode.
  3. Do not smoke and make sure there is no battery fluid dripping out. Rinse with water if it has this happened in the affected areas immediately.

Car Battery

Many people can drive a car or a motorcycle, but a few people who understand the function of the car battery. Many of them do not understand the other devices on cars that support the work of the car itself. They only understand the function of the vehicle and only know how to drive. It is reasonable because they are not a technical person, not a vehicle mechanic, or not an engineer. However, whatever their job and specialists, they should know what the car battery and also understand its function even if only slightly.

Battery in the car has an important role and is one of the important components so that the car can work well especially for modern car that always uses the electrical system. As with other batteries, car battery is also composed of cells where each cell has a nominal voltage of 2 volts DC. The function of the battery in a vehicle is a source of electrical voltage (DC) for controlling a variety of electrical and electronic systems within the vehicle including a starter.

The number of battery cells will determine the total voltage, but generally consists of six cells, so the nominal voltage of the battery is 12 volts (2 Volts x 6 cells). The current capacity (Ampere Hours / AH) which is able to be supplied by the battery is usually written on the battery label. Large current capacity battery has greater physical shape if compared with small-capacity batteries.

Car battery which is mounted on a vehicle has an active period of two years or more depending on the brand, quality of the battery, and maintenance. However, the dry battery has an active period of work longer than liquid battery.

Price of dry battery in the market is more expensive than liquid battery because the quality is better and easier maintenance. The stability of the battery in the vehicle will ensure the system on the vehicle can work well in accordance with the specifications. Therefore, the existence of battery should always be controlled.

If you are not an expert and can only drive a car, you can perform regular checks on your favorite vehicle repair shop, and ask for information when the battery needs to be recharged and when to be replaced. But if you understands about the battery or want to try to perform maintenance on the car battery by yourself, the following steps can be tried.

  1. If the car battery used is a type of liquid battery, you should check the quantity of liquid inside the battery in order not to exceed the maximum limit (upper level) and should not be less than the minimum limit (lower level) allowed by each manufacturer. If the fluid exceeds the maximum limit, dispose the liquid. If less than the minimum, it must be added with the correct tools. Be careful because it is dangerous. Perform regular checks on the line of upper level and lower level on the physical battery.
  2. Perform a physical inspection of the car battery. If there is a crack, then the battery must be replaced because the battery fluid can be quickly exhausted and dripping onto other parts of the vehicle and can cause damage.
  3. Check the positive pole and negative pole. Both of these terminals should be kept clean of dirt so that electric current can flow properly. In addition, check the tightness of the nuts / bolts on the poles.
  4. Check and make sure the vent cap is not clogged. This vent serves to dispose of the gas due to the reaction in the car battery.
  5. Measure the voltage of car battery using a volt meter. We recommend using a digital volt meter to be more precise. If there is one cell voltage is less than 2 volts, meaning that the battery must be replaced because the total voltage is no longer in accordance with the label on the battery.

DC to AC Inverter Using IC4047

The working principle of DC to AC Inverter Using IC4047 similarly to the power inverter circuit which uses two transistors and power inverter circuit that uses IC 555. The only difference is in the pulse generator or oscillator which in this circuit IC 4047 is a major component to generate square signal which continues constantly. One of DC to AC Inverter Using IC4047 is as follow:

Inverter Circuit 4047

DC to AC Inverter Circuit Using IC4047

In the circuit schematic above, the output of the IC 4047 which used are only two, those are pin 10 and pin 11. The condition of them are made opposite. When the pin 10 high condition, the condition of the pin 11 is low and vice versa. This circuit can produce a frequency which is more stable than the previous inverter circuits. The output frequency of IC 4047 can be set by adjusting the variable resistor VR1.

As in the previous circuits, two transistors serves as driver that can strengthen the current. Transistor output is taken from each collector (C) to be connected to the input step-up transformer to be multiplied. The output of the transformer (T1) is a new AC power source which is a conversion of 12 Volt DC voltage. This output can be a source of electricity as well as the main power source.

The output current capacity of the inverter depends on the specifications of the step-up transformer (T1). However, we must still consider the specification of the Darlington transistor which serves as a driver and as a current amplifier. If the Darlington transistor (Q1 and Q2) are not in accordance with the needs of the system, it can cause the system works abnormal and unstable. In certain cases can lead to excess heat in Darlington transistor and finally broken.

Although transistors which are mounted on the system is appropriate, we should put the cooling metal (heatsink) on the transistors to prevent overheating when the circuit works full (maximum).

DC to AC Inverter Using IC 555

In this post will be explained briefly about the circuit of DC to AC Inverter using IC 555. This power inverter circuit will produce an output AC (alternating current) high voltage via a step-up transformer. Initially, the input source voltage is voltage DC (direct current) which is converted into AC voltage.

The working principle of DC to AC Inverter Using IC 555 is equal to the inverter circuit which uses a transistor which should have a pulse-producing section, multivibrator, or oscillator with frequency as needed such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz. This pulse is only a few volts (maximum equal to the voltage source), then it is passed to the driver to be input step-up transformers. After going through the transformers, AC voltage generated becomes higher as needed for example 110 volts, 120 volts, or 220 volts. Below is one example of a DC to AC inverter circuit using IC 555.

DC to AC Inverter Circuit

DC to AC Inverter Circuit Using IC 555

In the electronic scheme above, the IC 555 serves as the oscillator or pulse generator. Frequency generated from pin 3 (output) can be adjusted by turning the variable resistor VR1, the waveform of the IC’s output is a square. Output current of the IC 555 is still small so it still requires a driver to be able to trigger Tranformer. Driver in the above circuit is composed of two transistors, the type NPN (Q1) and type PNP (Q2).

Since both the transistors of different types, and two Bases (B) of transistors are combined on the same point of the output IC 555 through a resistor (R1), then transitor Q1 and Q2 will work interchangeably.

When the output of IC 555 is at a positive level, then the transistor Q1 will be at saturation condition and transistor Q2 will be the cut-off condition. If the output of IC 555 is at a low level, the transitor Q1 will be the cut-off condition and transistor Q2 will be at saturation condition. The transistors work like a switch that is controlled by the respective base. Output current of each transistor Collector (C) is more robust and ready to be increased by a step-up transformer to generate higher alternating voltage (AC).

DC to AC Inverter Using Transistors

DC to AC inverter is an electronic system that serves to convert DC current (direct current) into AC (alternating current). This is certainly due to a lot of electronic devices and electrical devices that require AC current source while the user has a DC current source. Usually these tools are used in places and situations that are far from the main power source or used as a backup power source. Below we briefly summarize regarding DC to AC inverter using transistors, rather just use two transistor components. Inverter circuit that uses transistors as the main component is the simplest inverter circuit.

Inverter Transistors

Inverter using two transistor

Both transistors on each of which is connected to the resistor works as a pulse generator. This voltage will then be increased by a step-up transformer as needed. The output voltage of the transformer is what can be used as a source of alternating electric current (AC). The picture below is another example of DC to AC inverter using transistors with two additional passive components ie two capacitors so that the resulting frequency can be determined by a combination of resistor and capacitor.

DC to AC inverter

DC to AC inverter Circuit using transistors

The function of the transistors, capacitors, and resistors equal to the previous inverter circuit for generating a voltage pulse generated but still small (maximum equal to the DC voltage source). This voltage is then increased by a step-up transformer as needed.

Both DC to AC inverter circuits above are very simple, yet dynamic settings for frequency and voltage output produced. However, these circuits can still be used for urgent purposes (need quick time). In the next post will explain more complex inverter circuit using IC 555 so that the resulting output frequency can be set up easily.

In electronics and electrical stores, this simple circuits may still be used, but most have improved with other features in accordance with the demands and needs of the market. Inverter prices are generally directly proportional to the quality and advantages of the inverter itself, including the complexity of the circuit and component quality.